New York City has a long and captivating history when it comes to politics. From the time of the American Revolution to the present day, the city has experienced a number of changes in its political landscape. During the American Revolution, New York endured a lengthy British occupation and two fires that destroyed a third of its buildings. Federalist mayor James Duane and his successor Richard Varick managed reconstruction efforts in the 1780s, and DeWitt Clinton's efforts after 1803 laid the groundwork for New York's national prominence.
After 1800, New York was the largest city in the country, a commercial powerhouse that operated efficiently even as the city became a melting pot of different towns. However, New Yorkers still lacked the right to elect their own mayor; only in 1834 did Cornelius Lawrence initiate democratic control, which has since been characteristic of the metropolis. One aspect on which voters of all classes agreed was the need to improve city services, and in April 1835 they approved the creation of a new water supply. New York's Croton Aqueduct was inaugurated in 1842 and provided citizens with some of the best quality drinking water in the country; this better water was also essential to ending the epidemics that periodically plagued the city. Manhattan's desire for self-government was often at odds with the plans of upstate legislators, and in 1857 Albany authorized the Metropolitan Police District to cover four urban counties.
The state's involvement created two competing police forces, and their subsequent battles only ended with the intervention of the state militia. It wasn't until 1870, after a massive bribe by William Magear Tweed, that the power of the local police was restored. The Tweed statute increased the authority of the office of mayor in matters of government and, after Tweed's overthrow in 1871, a reform charter added powers to the Comptroller's office. The Estimation Board and City Council were also established to direct the development of New York City. The New York City Campaign Finance Board (NYCCFB) provides matching public funding to eligible candidates, who, in return, are subject to strict contribution and spending limits and a full audit of their finances.
New York City is administered by a mayor who appoints department heads and criminal court judges and prepares the annual budget. In this debate, law enforcement, policy makers, advocates, journalists and community leaders come together to discuss events such as those in Ferguson and ask themselves how New York and other cities are responding. New York City politicians have often exerted a great deal of influence in other countries represented in the city's ethnic mix, such as in the development of MacBride Principles that affect labor practices in Northern Ireland. The massive decline in manufacturing and taxes it generated also weakened New York's economy, leading to a metropolis out of control. Ward, executive director of the Port Authority of New York and New JerseyVishaan Chakrabarti, director of Real Estate Development Program at Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation Anna Hayes Levin, commissioner of New York City Planning Commission and former member Manhattan Community Board No. Approximately 52% of all revenues collected by local governments in New York State come solely from New York City government, which spends them on education (28%), social services (20%), public safety (13%), benefits and pensions (10%).
New York City residents pay income tax to municipality, in addition to New York State income taxes, in brackets ranging from 2.9% to 3.7% state taxable income. New York State has more than 4200 local governments form counties, cities, towns and villages. The homeless population is close to its all-time high with more than 40 000 New Yorkers living in shelters including 16 500 children and their parents. Military facilities include United States Army post Fort Hamilton located Bay Ridge section Brooklyn under shadow Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.